The other day I was skimming through Lee Smolin's The Trouble with Physics . On pages 317-138 one can read the following: In the context of quantum gravity, it resulted in a new approach to quantum cosmology, made by Fotini Markopoulou and her collaborators. Markopoulou emphasized that describing the exchange of information between different subsystems is the same as describing the causal structure that limits which system can influence each other. She thus found that a universe can be described as a quantum computer, with a dynamically generated logic. With all due respect, the idea that the universe is a computer was put forth by Konrad Zuse in his Rechnender Raum . Furthemore, Zuse's ideas form in a way the basis of digital philosophy . Whether the universe is a computer or not is another discussion that I have addressed briefly in an older post.